Sole, Dover sole, Common sole
Method of production - Caught at sea
Capture method - Demersal otter trawl
Capture area - North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area - Bay of Biscay
Stock detail - VIIIa,b,d
Fish type - White flat fish
The stock has been increasing from an historical low in 2003 and is above the MSY target level in 2016. Fishing pressure however is too high and above the level required to meet maximum sustainable yield. Avoid eating immature sole (less than 30cm) and fresh (not previously frozen) fish caught during the breeding season (April-June).
Sole is a right-eyed flatfish (eyes on the right hand side of the body) and belongs to the family of flatfishes known as Soleidae. It spawns in spring and early summer in shallow coastal water, from April to June in the southern North Sea, from May-June off the coast of Ireland and southern England, and as early as February in the Mediterranean. Common sole become sexually mature at 3-5 years, when 25-35cm long, the males being somewhat smaller than the females. It can attain lengths of 60-70cm and weigh 3kg.The maximum reported age is 26 years. Sole is a nocturnal predator and therefore more susceptible to capture by fisheries at night than in daylight.
Bay of Biscay
The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) increased from a historical low in 2003. Although SSB decreased again after 2011 and was below MSY Btrigger in 2014 and 2015, it is above MSY Btrigger in 2016. The fishing mortality (F) has been above FMSY for almost the entire time-series. The 2012, 2013, and 2014 recruitments (R) are the lowest in the time-series.
A multi annual management plan was first put in place in 2006 to restore the spawning stock to 13,000 t by 2008 and thereafter ensure the sustainable exploitation of the stock. A long-term target fishing mortality rate and rate of reduction to achieve this has yet to be decided. The management plan has not yet been evaluated by ICES. Agreed total allowable catches (TACs) are greater than catches recommended by scientific advice for past 5 years.
The French fleet, which consists mainly of trawlers and fixed-nets, is the major participant with landings comprising about 90% of the total. Landings of the fixed-net fishery comprise 70%. Bycatch of non-commercial species and discards are estimated to be limited in this fishery. Beam trawling, especially using chain-mat gear, is known to have significant impact on seabed and benthic communities. It is also associated with high levels of discard. Whilst discards of sole are known to be low in the beam trawl fishery, there is substantial discarding of non-commercial species and commercial species of unmarketable size. Minimum landing size for sole in EU waters is 24cm.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below . Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.
ICES Advice 2016, Book 7 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2016/2016/sol-bisc.pdf
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