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Sole, Dover sole, Common sole

Solea solea

Method of production - Caught at sea
Capture method - Beam trawl
Capture area - North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area - Eastern Channel
Stock detail - VIId
Certification -
Fish type - White flat fish

Sustainability rating Click for explaination of rating

This fish, caught by the methods and in the area listed above, is not a good choice of sustainable fish to eat and should be only eaten very occasionally. Click on the rating icon above to read more and on the alternatives tab below to find more sustainable fish to eat.


Sustainability overview

The stock in the eastern Channel is classified as 'having full reproductive capacity' or healthy but at risk of being harvested unsustainably, i.e. fishing pressure is higher than the maximum level recommended by ICES. To increase the sustainability of the fish you eat from this area, choose sole from the Hastings Fleet trammel net fishery which is certified as an environmentally responsible fishery by the Marine Stewardship Council. Avoid eating immature sole (less than 30cm) and fresh (not previously frozen) fish caught during the breeding season (April-June).

Biology

Sole is a right-eyed flatfish (eyes on the right hand side of the body) and belongs to the family of flatfishes known as Soleidae. It spawns in spring and early summer in shallow coastal water, from April to June in the southern North Sea, from May-June off the coast of Ireland and southern England, and as early as February in the Mediterranean. Common sole become sexually mature at 3-5 years, when 25-35cm long, the males being somewhat smaller than the females. It can attain lengths of 60-70cm and weigh 3kg.The maximum reported age is 26 years. Sole is a nocturnal predator and therefore more susceptible to capture by fisheries at night than in daylight.

Stock information

Stock area
Eastern Channel

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Stock information
The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has fluctuated without trend and is predicted to drop below MSY Btrigger in 2016. Fishing mortality (F) has always been above FMSY and increased over the years 2012-2015. Recruitment has been fluctuating without trend and was in 2012-2014 among the lowest of the time-series, which has resulted in the decrease in recent SSB. Stock size and fishing pressure are currently below and above both the MSY and precautionary reference levels. Prior to 2014, discards were assumed to be negligible, but new information indicates that discard rates are currently higher than previously assumed and are around 9%.

Management

No specific management objectives are known to ICES, there is no management plan for sole in the area.

Capture information

Sole is caught in 80 mm beam trawl fisheries (35 %) with plaice or in mixed demersal fisheries using otter trawls (12 %). Due to the minimum mesh size (80 mm) in the mixed beam trawl fishery, a large number of undersized plaice is discarded as the mesh size is not matched to the minimum landing size of plaice. An increase in mesh size would help to protect juvenile plaice, however it is likely that there would be a loss of marketable sole. Discards of plaice are in the order of 10%. Beam trawling has a physical impact on the seabed and impacts biomass, production and species biodiversity. Vessels also fish for scallops and cuttlefish using this method. Minimum landing size for sole in EU waters is 24cm.

Read more about capture methods

Alternatives

Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below . Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.

Dab Depending on how and where it's caught this species ranges from sustainable to unsustainable. Click the name to display only the sustainable options.

Flounder Depending on how and where it's caught this species ranges from sustainable to unsustainable. Click the name to display only the sustainable options.

Halibut, Atlantic (Farmed) Depending on how and where it's caught this species ranges from sustainable to unsustainable. Click the name to display only the sustainable options.

Halibut, Pacific

Sole, Dover sole, Common sole Depending on how and where it's caught this species ranges from sustainable to unsustainable. Click the name to display only the sustainable options.

Turbot (Farmed)


References
ICES Advice 2016, Book 6 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2016/2016/sol-eche.pdf

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